Hot News April 2005

David Krakauer and friends

Klezmer Clarinet

Klezmer Madness ensemble

Krakauer on Bass Clarinet

Ensemble Klezmer

Klezmer performance

Klezmer Madness ensemble

Dave Krakauer and Mike Getzin

Ensemble group

Mike Getzin, Dave Krakauer and friend

 30 April 2005

 Klezmer Madness Concert with David Krakauer

 New York City USA

          A sold out double performance of this ensemble held at a notable Theatre Dinner Club ‘Joe’s Pub, 

run by Klezmer Master Clarinetist  David Krakauer  galvanized this audience with this very effective

array of virtuosity, soul, and a hunger from the audience for more.  The ensemble consisting of 2

accordianists, 2 giutar players, a drummer, and a a ‘Socalled’ performer using synthesized techniques

and narration, and Krakauer, performed Yiddish music and many of the pieces were from a recently

issued CD recorded live at Krakow Germany, released by Label Bleu, a French label.   It is evident

that Mr Krakauer has been a major force in Klezmer Music in the USA and has traveled to source

areas dealing with this music.  This ensemble is one to be reckoned with in its uniqeness and power

of music expression.  This group is very active in New York.

Mark Nuccio at Class Introduction

Manhattan School of Music

Frabizio Meloni and student Heather Thon

Meloni coaching Roman Fukshansky

Pascal Archer with Meloni

Meloni lesson

Mozart coaching with pianist

Master Class program

Master Class with Nuccio and Meloni

Master Class and guests

25 April 2005

 Fabrizio Meloni Master Class at the Manhattan School of Music

 New York City, USA

            A special Orchestral Clarinet master Class convened at this leading Conservatory in the

United States.  This event was hosted by the celebrated Associate Solo Clarinetist / Eb Clarinet

in the New York Philharmonic Mark Nuccio who arranged this entire event, of which Meloni’s

appearance was sponsored by Buffet-Crampon.    Program is posted above in which standard

audition works were showcased such as the Mozart Clarinet Concerto K 622 played by Heather

Thon,  the Orchestral works were played by Roman Fukshansky and Pascal Archer, all advanced

students of Mr Nuccio.  This class, over 2 ½ hours, was intense without letup applied by Mr Meloni

who vigorously outpaced the students in getting the most out of them artistically, technically, emphasizing

advanced concepts and played demonstrating how to perfect the passages. It was a wonder that the

students did not crack under the pressure of the coaching.  All the students were well prepared and

capable to perform a credible Orchestral audition, and were conceptually even more ready after this

afternoon of hard coaching.  Many major players and dignitaries made special appearance including

Jon Manasse, noted soloist and faculty at the Eastman School of Music, and Francois Kloc from

Buffet-Crampon, sponsor for this afternoon.  This was a class of very high importance for any serious

player who wants to witness clarinet perfection given by world-class artists.  The event was free admission. 

Information about Mr Meloni below.

             Fabrizio Meloni has been the first clarinetist in the theatre of La Scala of the Milan Philharmonic

Orchestra since 1984.  He obtained his diploma, highly commended and with honorable mention, from the

Conservatory Giuseppe Verdi in Milan.

             Meloni has performed in various national and international competitions, including "Pragues Spring"

3rd prize and 3rd prize in the Munich competition. He played as soloist in several orchestras: Orchestra

Sinfonica Nazionale della RAI, Pomeriggi Musicali, Stradivari, Internazionale, Tokyo Orchestra. He has

collaborated with Canino, Lonquich, Campanella, H. Schiff, Gulda, Gruberova, Hagen Quartet and

Myung-Whun Chung.

            He has recorded Mozarts Symphonie Concertante by Nuova Era; the quintets of Mozart and

Brahms for clarinet and strings with the Italian Quintet by Fonit Cetra; a CD dedicated to Schubert,

Schumann and Mendelssohn with F. Manara and the strings trio of La Scala, for Thymallus; and

another CD dedicated to Beethoven.

           Meloni recently recorded Mozarts concerto K 622 for clarinet and orchestra in collaboration

with the Philharmonic Orchestra of La Scala, conducted by Riccardo Muti.

            Meloni teaches in several academies - Lonato, DAMUS de Montegiorgio in Monterubiano,

Perugia, Castelfranco Veneto - and was invited by the Conservatoires Nationaux Suprieurs of Paris

and Lyon for a series of concerts and master classes.

            For more information, please contact Francois Kloc at

or by calling 1-800-426-7068.

Eastern Univ University Music Bldg

HS Clarinet Choir rehearsal

Hartig, Dannessa, and Prof Rhoades

Pianist Ryan Shirar and Connie Rhoades Recital

Karen Dannessa in Recital

Caroline Hartig in Recital

Student lesson with Hartig

HS Student with Dannessa

Junior student with Hartig

HS Student with Dannessa

High School Clarinet Choir

Junior High School Clarinet Choir

Pianist Prof Mariarty and Caroline hartig

Prof Mickens and Karen Dannessa

Prof Shirar and Dr Rhoades

23 April 2005

Eastern Kentucky University Clarinet Festival 

Richmond, Kentucky USA

         The annual Festival held on this campus had within this day 3 acclaimed University Clarinet

professionals from major schools around the country.  The professors Connie Rhoades of this School

of Music, Karen Dannessa, newly appointed Professor of Clarinet at Westchester University in

Pennsylvania, and Buffet artist and Professor at Michigan State University Caroline Hartig, a

renowned International soloist.     The students attending covered every level from beginning

student at the Junior High School level, High School students, and College students.  Of interest

was the teaching emphasis on basic fundamentals of playing applied to all the students and seeing

how stresses on correct techniques including breath support, embouchure, rhythm and methodically

drilling these concepts in the students’ minds.  Too often students do not cover these basics early

and later have to be painfully re-taught how to play the clarinet and go backwards to catch up on

what they learned wrong.   Hopefully the message got through and a hard re-thinking of how to

practice, and approach the right way is accomplished.  The 3 teachers covered these aspects upon

all the students.  For a young child player to get the message from a accomplished performer/teacher

from a major school should be inspirational and beneficial.    Two Clarinet Choirs prepared and

performed the last concert under Connie Rhoades (High School) and Krystal Merz (Junior High School).  

         Three recitals with the featured faculty performed throughout the day including Connie Rhoades

performing works of Finzi (5 Bagatelles, Perifoy arrangement of Wondrous Love, Poulenc (Sonata),

and C.M. von Weber  (Duo Concertante Op 48);

 Karen Dannessa performing:  Leo Weiner (Peregi Verbunk), Busoni (Suite K. 88) , JS Bach

(arranged by Stanley hasty (Chromatic Fantasy), and Martinu (Sonatine)

 Caroline Hartig performed Charles Marie Widor  (Introduction et Rondo Op 72), Jules Mazellier

Fantasy-Ballet), Gaetano Labanchi  (Fantasia on Motives from Verdi’s Opera Aida), Ernest Chaisson  

(Andante et Allegro), Germaine Taileferre (Arabesque), and Luigi Bassi  ( Divertimento on Operatic

motives from La Favorita).  Carlone Hartig was sponsored by Buffet-Crampon.

          The entire day went with musical enrichment from all sides with the teaching concepts and

performance role examples well performed to the credit of all who participated.  With events like

this being held at several campuses, it should be an opportunity not to be missed by any clarinetist

who is serious about his/her training.

Ohio University School of Music

Professor Fitzer and 4 guest students

Gala Clarinet Choir reading

Browsing at Contemporary music publications

Ohio Gala faculty and Mike Getzin

Kimberly Cole Huevano with 2 Clarinets

Dr Rischen with student

Eli Eban in discussion

Eban working with student

Extended Clarinet demonstration

Ann-Marie Bingham Trio

Eli Eban Recital

Kimberly Cole Huevano Contemprary Recital

Costa Bass Clarinet Recital

Barbara Specgt Recital

17 April 2005

Ohio University Clarinet Gala 2005

Athens, Ohio USA

          A major success Gala convened at this major campus with a diverse faculty of Professors from

Ohio, West Virginia, Indiana, Washington, and included comprehensive coverage of fundamentals of

Clarinet playing concentrating on the fine points of performance.    Noteworthy was the 2 hour master

class with 6 students under world-class teacher/performer Eli Eban, former Solo Clarinetist in the

Israel Philharmonic and Professor at Indiana University.  Each student who played in the class was

thoroughly  made versed in how to produce the tone needed to play with ease, including subtle

changes in embouchure, diaphram  and support, and means to achieve those objectives. Complete

analysis of each of their issues was carefully explained.

          A class in Extended Clarinet Techniques was fully covered in the discussion by Kim Cole Luevano,

with a handout of the sources of how to learn the craft including resources from names in that field

including Bruno Bartolozzi, Ronald Caravan, Phillip Rehfeldt, Elsa Ludwig-Verdehr, and others. 

Demonstration was provided on areas such as multiphonics, flutter tonguing, resonance tonal variations,

and many other areas.   One emphasis of this class was to insure that these techniques are not too difficult

to grasp and each player should explore and learn to serve and enhance their playing as these extended

techniques are now part of a performer’s life in performance and teaching.

         Professor Rischen gave a master class covering more fundamentals and covering important aspects

of the Mozart Clarinet Concerto with recommended editions. Of interest to students was an examination

of a Wurlitzer Basset A Clarinet Reform Boehm system which has the capability of playing the work in its

original intent with the low extra range, also used in the Clarinet Quintet k 581. 

        A Potpourri faculty recital was performed by Anthony Costa, Bass Clarinetist, of the Dayton Symphony,

Ann-Marie Bingham from Marshall University in West Virginia, Barbara Specht from Heidelberg College,

Anthony Taylor from the Spokane Symphony, and Kimberly Cole-Luevano from Eastern Michigan University.   

The Finale was Eli Eban who performed a showcase recital of standard literature including Brahms 2nd Sonata,

3 Songs without Words by Paul Ben-Haim,  Darius Milhaud’s Duo Concertante, 4 Church Sonatas by

W. A. Mozart arranged by Yona Ettlinger, another great Clarinetist from Israel.

       This Clarinet Gala, an annual event well planned and well attended is an opportunity not to be missed by

any serious player who wants to learn several perspectives for growth and making of friends through this

association.  Professor Rischen is to be highly credited with its success.

Master Class with Stanley Drucker in Vienna Conservatory

Meastro Drucker and students

Clarinet coaching

Naomi and Stanley Drucker in Vienna

Roger Salander with Druckers socially

18-20 April 2005

 Stanley Drucker Master Class Residency at Vienna Conservatory – Roger Salander

 Vienna, Austria

           Stanley Drucker, Solo Clarinetist in the New York Philharmonic, in conjunction with the Vienna

Conservatory of Music under Clarinet Professor and former student Roger Salander, presented a major

series of master classes for three days at the Conservatory and students from other schools came as well.

There were participants from Austria, Korea, Taiwan, Poland, Hungary, Mexico, the United States and

Macedonia, quite a mix, a very international representation here. Students were allowed the to select

their repertoire and no orchestral repertoire was presented. What was heard included Nielsen, Debussy,

Francaix, Stockhausen, Weber, Finzi, Copland, Schumann and Messager. What was an eye-opener for

the students (though exactly what I suspected, having been Stanley's very first pupil at the age of 17

and knowing him for a lifetime), was that the consummate technician (of all time) spoke almost exclusively

about line, musicality, sound and style. He complimented those with especially good techniques but never

dwelt on this. He was always more impressed with a good sound and a musical personality.

         To add a personal comment, Stanley taught me about perfection when I was 17, something I sorely

needed at the time. However, even then, it was always the music that he considered most important.

I have carried this philosophy throughout my life as a clarinetist. It was first brought home to me by

Augustin Duques, my teacher at Juilliard, and then repeated with intensity by Alfred Prinz, my mentor

here in Vienna. Stanley has never wavered in his pursuit of musical values. Yes, an excellent technique

is an absolute necessity for a career as a musician (and that does include clarinetists), but that's only

the very beginning. Artistry can only begin when technique is no longer a factor. This is what I try to

give my students and it was great to have Stanley here and hear him tell him that very thing.

(from left to right): Jean-François Bescond, Jonathan Shames, Sandra Mosteller, James Campbell,

David Shea, David Etheridge, Anne Thurmond, and John Cipolla

9 April 2005

4th Annual Texas Tech University Clarinet Festival

Lubbock, Texas, USA

by Rahni Kennedy

The Fourth Annual Texas Tech Clarinet Festival was held on April 8-9 in the School of Music Building on

the campus of Texas Tech University.  This event was hosted by Dr. David Shea, Associate Professor of

Clarinet, and featured several clinicians and leading clarinet artists from around the country.  Fifty

clarinetists from the region took part in a day of recitals, master classes and clinics.

The festival began on Friday evening with a master class given by recording artist and Indiana University

Professor of Clarinet, James Campbell.  Mr. Campbell worked with five Texas Tech clarinet students giving

valuable tips on how to improve their playing and knowledge.  Some of the more insightful tips included knowing

the difference between studying and practicing music. Studying means you become the teacher and practice

should consist of “smart repetition.”  He also emphasized a couple of old adages, doing what is written in the

music and taking notes when you go to any master class or clinic. This master class was truly beneficial to

all in attendance.

Saturday’s festivities included a master class and a wide array of recitals and clinics for all levels of playing.  

Host David Shea began the day with a recital, which included a performance of Malcolm Arnold’s Sonatina and

concluded with Leo Weiner’s Peregi Verbunk, The pieces were performed with great expression and virtuosity.

Next, Shea welcomed clarinetist David Etheridge and pianist Jonathan Shames, both from the University of

Oklahoma, to conclude the opening recital.  Etheridge and Shames were very dynamic in their powerful

performances of the Brahms Clarinet Sonata in Eb Major Sonata and Francis Poulenc Sonata. Etheridge

also presented a work for clarinet and tape, titled, by Nikola Resanovic.  This piece is

characterized by the clarinetist interacting with a multitude of sounds including a facsimile machine, phone

tones, and Eastern European dance music.  This performance delighted the audience in its novelty and

engaging performance.  

Following the early morning recitals, Dr. Etheridge gave a master class with two participants from Texas Tech.  

He gave insightful advice to the students about reed adjustment to compensate for the manufacturer’s faults

and finding the correct stroke for tonguing.  Even some of the other guest artists were taking notes.  Etheridge

also gave useful tips on playing fundamentals as he helped the TTU students improve their performances of

their selected pieces.

The morning was concluded with a recital by Western Kentucky University Clarinet Professor of Clarinet and

Saxophone, Dr. John Cipolla. Cipolla began with Jean Françaix’s Thema con variazioni. All of the intricacies and

challenges were handled with great facility and a beautiful sound.  The program concluded with a performance

of Meyer Kupferman’s Moonflowers, Baby! as Cipolla was joined by TTU Faculty, Alan Shinn on percussion.  

Together, the two showed their great skills in the jazz idiom as they gave a masterful performance of this work.

The second half of the day started with a presentation from Jean-François Bescond of Conn-Selmer, Inc.  

Mr. Bescond showed a video on the manufacturing of the new Selmer line of clarinets and how they differ

from the current popular brands.  He also brought this line of instruments for the participants to test and

give feedback on.  Next, John Cipolla gave a fascinating clinic on beginning improvisation.  He laid out the

grass root principles needed to start improvisation with only a small clarinet combo.  These included playing

the root note on chord changes, a “mindful” repeat of the melody line, a bass line, and the presence for each

player to switch off between these. By the end of the session, Dr. Cipolla had two Texas Tech students doing

improvisation as if they had been doing it for years.

 The afternoon recitals began with Dr. Anne Thurmond of Tennessee Tech University.  Thurmond presented a

recital which began with an elegant and refined performance of the first movement of Franz Krommer’s

Concerto in Eb Major. The next work was an unaccompanied solo by Michael Kibbe, Sonata, Op. 8. This was

a new piece for most in the audience, and Thurmond gave a very effective and commanding performance of the work.  

She concluded her program with an inspiring rendition of Schumann’s Fantasiestücke, Op. 73.

This brought the festival to the final recital of the day given by James Campbell.  He started with a set of

pieces by Debussy, which included a beautiful and intimate performance of the Première Arabesque and

Petite Pièce, Next, the audience was treated with Brian Newbould’s Fantasy Sonata after Franz Schubert,

which is based on material from Shepherd on the Rock.   This was only the second performance of this work.  

He ended the program with another set of pieces by American composers.  The set included the Bernstein

Sonata, a transcription of Copland’s song, At The River, and the calypso-style inspired third movement from

David Baker’s Sonata.  Certainly, Mr. Campbell showed the audience his great sense of musicianship and

technique in his playing that has made him the world class artist that he is.

 Throughout the day, beginning and intermediate students had the opportunity to attend two clinics on clarinet

fundamentals.  These were given by Dr. Sandra Mosteller of Wayland Baptist University and were titled

“Tone Building and Tonguing” and “Technique and Practice Tips.”  Students received valuable information

on how to continue developing their playing in a correct and beneficial manner.

The day ended with a clarinet choir concert.  First, the TTU Clarinet Choir performed an arrangement of

Bach’s Toccata and Fugue in d minor with a brilliance that delighted the audience.  The middle and high

school participants joined the choir on stage to form the TTU Festival Clarinet Choir, which performed

several short selections before ending with the festival’s traditional finale piece The Stars and Stripes Forever.

The TTU Clarinet Studio would like to thank several sponsors for supplying grants that made this year’s

festival possible: J D’Addario and Rico Reeds, Selmer, Tarpley Music and the Texas Music Educator’s

Association. Also, special thanks to Joshua Kurzweil of McKinney North High School rehearsing the

middle and high school students for the clarinet choir concert, Jason Sifford and Regina Shea for the

piano collaboration.  A final thanks to all participants and the TTU Clarinet Studio looks forward to

bringing another successful festival to West Texas next year.

Larry Guy Bonade lecture

Guy Master Class

Larry Guy and student

Guy with embouchure demonstration

Guy hand position demo with student

David hattner Master Class

Guy Chadash with student

Ben Redwine on Jazz

Clarinet Choir reading with David Hattlin

Vandoren Reed/Mouthpiece seminar

Mark Nuccio Solo

Eb Clarinet playing

Orchestra audition coaching

Eb Clarinet Orchestra session

Bonade Clarinet Quartet with Nuccio

Nuccio, Hattner, Spinkler

Mark Sloffer and Larrry Guy

Mark Nuccio and Mike Getzin

Mark Nuccio with Chris Coppinger - Buffet

Education Bldg event site

9 April 2005

New Jersey Clarinet Symposium

Eastern Conservatory – Oldwick New Jersey USA

       The 2nd Symposium held in this small town 40 miles from New York City had this very effective

event involving many of the major professionals around New York, including Mark Nuccio, the featured

artist, Associate Solo / Eb Clarinetist in the New York Philharmonic, Larry Guy, Solo Clarinet in the

Long Island Symphony and faculty at the Manhattan School of Music and Vasser College, David Hattner,

Solo Clarinet in the Princeton New Jersey Symphony, Guy Chadash, maker of his special brand of Clarinets

and authority on Clarinet acoustics, Ben Redwine, Eb Clarinetist in the US Naval Academy Band and soloist

in Jazz and Classic. He is head of the mouthpiece firm Redwine Jazz and produces the Gennusa Clarinet

Mouthpiece.   Special attention was focused on sound concepts of playing, well laid out by Larry Guy on a

talk with recorded examples of the totality of Daniel Bonade, considered the Dean of American Clarinet

Playing.  Many of the most important Orchestral players studied and carried his concepts to the next

generations, including Robert Marcellus (Cleveland Orchestra), Bernard Portnoy, Harold Wright

(Boston Symphony), Leon Russianoff in New York, and a long list of other notables.  Orchestral

examples were played to demonstrate his concepts on tone, phrasing, technical connections, rhythm,

and more.  It is hoped that further study be paid to Bonade’s contribution.  Several books are available

to grasp these ideals, written by Mr Guy, and a major book written as a Doctoral thesis by Carol Kycia,

available through her directly.   

        David Hattner from the Princeton Symphony gave a master class with students pointing to integration

of tone, phrasing, technique and expressiveness as the focus.  Students played solo literature and were

intensively paced to achieve the ends asked for.   Demonstrations were constant to point at the goals.    

Ben Redwine presented a class on basic jazz concepts and encouraged the clarinetists present to actively

participate in the ideas.  Recording samples of each of the developmental eras of jazz was played to

acquaint everyone how these events evolved.     Guy Chadash, maker of Clarinets in New York,

gave a master class involving acoustics and its principles regarding the player and his instrument and

how to make connections to further performance goals.     David Gould, Vandoren Reeds / Mouthpieces

representative, gave an informative slideshow presentation about the total production of reeds from planting,

harvesting, processing, quality control, and with mouthpieces a similar production analysis.  Chris Coppinger,

USA Northeast Director Manager for Buffet-Crampon, sponsor for this event, gave a talk about the current

state of business with the company, pointing out the trends in the music industry where major companies are

being sought out by money-mongering investors, thus endangering the health and quality interests of the company.

        The high point was an Orchestra audition master class with Mark Nuccio, who extensively coached very

advanced students and professionals on the fine points covering basic and advanced repertoire, including

Brahms Symphonies, Kodaly Dances of Galanta, Shostakovich Symphony #7, on Eb Clarinet,  and other works. 

         This class was nothing less than incedible and points to Mr Nuccio’s status as a major symphony player. 

He succeeds Peter Simenauer, who retired 3 years ago from the Philharmonic, long regarded as one of the finest

Eb Clarinetists to play in New York. 

         The Bonade Clarinet Quartet performed with Nuccio playing and included Eb playing,   Mr Nuccio played

an informal recital of various works.

         This all day program, well planned and carried out by the Eastern Conservatory located at Zion Lutheran

Church in Oldwick, is in its 2nd year headed by Clarinetist and North Branch Records Recording Producer Mark

Sloth, and is a almost unknown event.  Attendance was very high, attracting students and teachers / professionals

from the entire state and New York.  This symposium is not to be missed. The entire day was made possible by

Buffet and Vandoren.  The day was free admission for all.

April 4-7 2005


Masterclasses at the Milan Conservatory with Karl Leister

 Milan, Italy



Karl Leister, Laura and Luigi Magistrelli in the courtyard of the Milan Conservatory and Master Class

               Luigi Magistrelli, clarinet teacher at the Conservatory of Milan, organized 

for the  third time some Master classes with Prof. Karl Leister. The theme was

“Classical and romantic German repertoire for clarinet”. There were also

chamber groups with clarinet and strings( Mozart Quintet K 581) , piano

and winds (Mozart K 452) and Trio for piano, clarinet and cello (Beethoven Op 11).

          Leister remarked often how clarinet playing should be conceived in a noble way,

thinking the sixteenth notes like melodies and not only as technical passages.

He also showed on his clarinet how to shape the phrases, and this was quite

important for the young and more advanced students.

Jean-Francois Bescond and Jerome Selmer

Leslie, Ben Redwine (selmer artist) and Jessica Phillips

Jerome Selmer and Dave Krakauer

Selmer Representatives

Instrument Exhibit

Morales Master Class

Student with Krakauer

Student and Loren Levy

Panel discussion

Ricardo Morales and student

Clarinet Quartet

Morales and Levy Duo

Ricardo Morales- Solo Clarinet Philadelphia Orch, and Stanley Drucker- Solo Clarinet in NY Philharmonic

Druckers, Dominique Vidal from Paris and Mike Getzin

Stanley Drucker and Georgia-Russian Clarinetist George Kovziridze

Selmer Programs

Loren Levy in Recital

Jessica Phillips in Recital

Krakauer and Accordianist Klezmer

Faculty Group photo at Steinway Hall


3 April 2005

 Selmer Clarinet Day- Steinway Hall, New York City USA

        A stellar day of Clarinet performances, master classes, a panel discussion, and a Clarinet

Recital with the great players in New York, including the Clarinet Section of the Metropolitan

Opera Orchestra, David Krakauer, noted Klezmer performer, Ricardo Morales, former Solo

Clarinet at the Met and now Solo Clarinetist in the Philadelphia Orchestra, Todd Levy, and

many others including students, and established professionals.  Selmer presented a Panel with

the faculty to discuss the instruments of their choice and why they choose these instruments

over other options. Jerome Selmer, Directeur General at Selmer Paris, gave a discussion on

the model differences and their purposes based on the performance needs of the players. 

The participants actively took part in discussions with both Selmer and the faculty. 

Exhibits of all the Selmer Clarinets were available for tryouts with representatives ready to

assist with questions.  Many major figures on the New York musical scene were present including

Stanley Drucker of the New York Philharmonic, and many others who teach at Colleges and

Universities within 100 miles of the city.  Two programs were performed as posted on the

photo gallery above this article.   Jean-Francois Bescond, US Selmer Representative was

responsible for this momentous success and this Clarinet Day is the third within a year, one in

Annapolis  Maryland and Greenville Delaware.

Copyright © 1999 All rights reserved.
Revised: October 13, 2007